Andijan or Andizhan is the fourth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and is located in the east of the country, in the Fergana Valley. Andijan is about 475 km east of Tashkent, and about 45 km west of Osh, Kyrgyzstan. Andijan is a center of oil production and has a few oil refineries. Cotton growing and processing remain the dominant economic activities
The city of Andijan is located at the eastern point of the chain of the first settlements of the early civilizations of Fergana Valley.
In subsequent years, in the process of archaeological research and excavations revealed findings related to 6th-4th centuries BC found that cultural monuments associated with the ancient history of Andijan, are located in the South-Western or central part of the city - at Sarvontepe and its environs. Approximately 4 metres deep was discovered archaeological complex 1 metre wide, built 2400–2600 years ago. Excavations in 2007 revealed that the complex covers several hectares. Naturally, in the context of Central Asia will reclaim the farming population, lived and built large and small settlements close to the water. Andijan is no exception. According to A.R. Muhammadžanova, the term "Andijan" is associated with water. In other words, the term Turkic-Mongol origin, had the meaning "settlement near the saya (water)".
In the first quarter of the 13th century, Andijan was the capital of Fergana region. Both Babur, Ark Andijan wrote on its largest was in Maveraunnahre following after Samarkand and cache. At that time in Andijan also operated his mint.
Consequently, Andijan is located in one of the hotbeds of Central Asia, which appeared early farming, formed the first samples of urban culture. In this territory were the ruins of an early city Dalvarzina (9th-7th centuries BC) and the ancient city of Èjlatona (6th-3rd centuries BC). To its geopolitical location Andijan served as a bridge between Bactria, Sogdiana, Chach with China (Xinjiang).
Andijan was an important stop on the Silk Road, lying roughly mid-way between Kashgar and Khodjend. Destroyed by Genghis Khan, it was rebuilt by his grandson Kaidu Khan in the late 13th century, and became the capital of Ferghana for the next three centuries. It is perhaps best known as the birthplace of Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur (Babur), who founded the Mughal dynasty that ruled much of today's India, Pakistan, and South Asia, born in 1483.
In the 18th and 19th cc. Andijan was a part of the Kokand khanate (state) was centered in present-day Kokand. In 1876 Andijan was captured by Russian forces.
The Fergana Valley's last local rebellion against the rule of the Russian Tsar took place at Andijan in 1898. An earthquake destroyed most of the old part of the city in 1902, killing more than 4000 people.
The Babur Literary Museum - is situated behind the bazaar, occupying the site of the royal apartments, where Babur lived and studied in Ark-Ichi, the town's citadel that exists no more. The museum opened in 1989 on the site of his residence, in celebration of the 460th year of publication of his autobiography entitled Baburname, published in English as the Memoirs of Babur. Andijan also has teacher-training, medical, and cotton-growing institutes.