The Republic of Kazakhstan - the state, extending from southeastern Europe to central Asia.
Capital – Astana
Official languages – Kazakh (national), Russian
Total: – 2,724,900 km2
Water: 1.7 %
Population: – 16,911,900 (01.01.2013 estimate)
Currency: – Tenge (
Time zone: – West / East(UTC+5 / +6)
Calling code: +7-6xx, +7-7xx
Internet TLD: .kz, .қаз
Location: on the eastern edge of the delta of the Volga in the west to the Altai Mountains in the east, from the West Siberian Plain and the southern end of the Urals in the north to the Tien Shan and the Kyzyl Kum desert in the south.
Bordered on the north and west of the Russian Federation - 7548.1 km, in the east - with China - 1782.8 km, in the south - with Kyrgyzstan - 1241.6 km, Uzbekistan - 2351.4 km and Turkmenistan - 426.0 km. The total length of the land border - 13,392.6 km. Washed by the landlocked Caspian and Aral seas. Kazakhstan - a country that does not have access to the World Ocean.
Administratively, the relation is divided into 14 provinces and 2 cities of republican values. Economic and geographically divided into the Central, Western, Eastern, Northern and Southern regions.
Kazakhstan has an extreme continental climate. It is characterized by irregular distribution of precipitation in its various regions. In certain years, spring arrives from south to north over a period of 1.5 - 2 months. When it is spring sowing time in the south, the northern area is still covered with snow and blizzards blow through frequently.
The land of Kazakhstan is rich in soils. The greater part of the forest-steppe zone is chernozem, which turns to dark-chestnut, light-chestnut and brown soils in the south. There are gray-soil lands in the deserts and semi-deserts, replaced by mountain soils in mountain zones. Crossing the territory of Kazakhstan from north to south you will encounter many different climatic zones, each with its own flora and fauna.
Kazakhstan is also rich in natural resources. In short, 99 of the 110 elements of the Mendeleev Periodic Table are found in the depths of Kazakhstan. For the present time, 60 elements are being extracted and utilized: chromium ore, tungsten borides, phosphorites, molybdenum, bauxites, asbestos, manganese, coal, oil, gas, titanium, magnesium, tin, uranium, gold and other non-ferrous metals and minerals.
Climate in the country is mainly continental. Average January temperature - from -19 ° C in the north to -5 ° C in the south, the average temperature in July - from +17 ° C in the north to +31 ° C in the south. Summer everywhere in the country is hot and dry. Temperatures can reach +50 ° C (in Turkestan, South Kazakhstan). Winter in the country is clear and cold, temperatures can reach -58 ° C (in the north).
In Kazakhstan - 7 major rivers, each of length greater than 1000 km. Among them: the Ural River (it is located on the upper reaches of Russia), which flows into the Caspian Sea, the Syr Darya (it is located on the upper reaches of the territory of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan) - the Aral Sea, Irtysh (its headwaters in China in Kazakhstan a major tributary of the Tobol and Ishim) across the Republic, and already in Russia flows into the Ob, flowing into the Arctic Ocean, the Ili River (its headwaters are located in China) flows into Lake Balkhash.
In Kazakhstan, many large and small lakes. The biggest among them - the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea, Balkhash, Alakol, Zaisan, Tengiz. Kazakhstan to include most of the northern and the eastern half of the Caspian Sea. Length of the coast of the Caspian Sea in Kazakhstan is 2,340 km. In Kazakhstan there are 13 reservoirs with a total area of 8,816 km ² and the total amount of water 87.326 km³.
Kazakhstan - a country with a rich historical and cultural past. Located in the heart of Eurasia. Kazakhstan was at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of the world, at the intersection of major transport arteries, and economic, cultural, and ideological relations between East and West, North and South, and between Europe and Asia, between the major public entities of the Eurasian continent.
Kazakhs are an extremely hospitable people. If you come to a Kazakh home unexpected you will be received as if you had been invited. Since early childhood, principles of respect for guests and older people, as well as peacefulness and tolerance, are instilled in every Kazakh, and these are the national features of Kazakh culture and tradition.
Kazakh culture is a Eurasian culture, which belongs to both the East and West, without being Eastern or Western, remaining original, which is characteristic of the vast majority of Indo-European civilizations. There are many fascinating places of interest in Kazakhstan, and importantly, no political or ethnic conflicts.
Traditional Kazakh belief held that separate spirits inhabited and animated the earth, sky, water and fire, as well as domestic animals. To this day, particularly honored guests in rural settings are treated to a feast of freshly killed lamb. Such guests are sometimes asked to bless the lamb and to ask its spirit for permission to partake of its flesh. Besides lamb, many other traditional foods retain symbolic value in Kazakh culture.
In the national cuisine, livestock meat can be cooked in a variety of ways and is usually served with a wide assortment of traditional bread products. Refreshments often include black tea and traditional milk-derived drinks such as ayran, shubat and kymyz. A traditional Kazakh dinner involves a multitude of appetisers on the table, followed by a soup and one or two main courses such as pilaf and beshbarmak. They also drink their national beverage, which consists of fermented mare's milk.
Because livestock was central to the Kazakhs' traditional lifestyle, most of their nomadic practices and customs relate in some way to livestock. Kazakhs have historically been very passionate about horse-riding. Traditional curses and blessings invoked disease or fecundity among animals, and good manners required that a person ask first about the health of a man's livestock when greeting him and only afterward inquire about the human aspects of his life. Even today, many Kazakhs express interest in equestrianism and horse-racing.
Kazakhstan features a lively music culture, evident in massive popularity of SuperStar KZ, a local offspring of Simon Fuller's Pop Idol. Almaty is considered to be the musical capital of the Central Asia, recently enjoying concerts by well known artists such as Deep Purple, Tokio Hotel, Atomic Kitten, Dima Bilan, Loon, Craig David, The Black Eyed Peas, Eros Ramazzotti, José Carreras, Ace of Base, Scorpions (band), Timati, Tiësto, among others. Tourism is becoming fasting growing industry in Kazakhstan and its is joining international tourism networking. In year 2010, Kazakhstan joined The Region Initiative (TRI) which is a Tri-regional Umbrella of Tourism related organisations. TRI is functioning as a link between three regions: South Asia, Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Armenia, Bangladesh, India, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Nepal, Tajikistan, Russia, Sri Lanka, Turkey and Ukraine are now Partners and Kazakhstan is linked with other South Asian, Eastern European and Central Asian countries in tourism market.
January 1-2 - New Year (National Day).
January 7 - Christmas (special holiday).
March 8 - International Women's Day (National Day).
March 21-23 - Nauryz (National Day).
May 1 - the unity of the people of Kazakhstan (National Day).
May 7 - Defender of the Fatherland Day (National Day).
May 9 - Victory Day (National Day).
July 6 - Capital Day (National Day).
August 30 - Day of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan (National Day).
December 1 - The Day of the first president of Kazakhstan (National Day).
December 16-17 - Independence Day of Kazakhstan (National Day).
10 Dhu al-Hijjah (Islamic Calendar) - Kurban Ait (special holiday).